Archive for the ‘Opinion’ Category

Yesterday, Geoff gave his talk about agile GUI testing. For anyone who missed it, here is a video of him giving roughly the same talk earlier this year at Europython. Gojko Adzic has also blogged about what he said, which is exactly the kind of feedback we came to this conference for. In his post Gojko explains Geoff’s testing approach, and seems quietly positive about it, at least compared to the “sine of death” you get with other UI test automation tools. His conclusion that it looked more suitable for legacy code than greenfield development is a little uncomfortable though. We think it works there too 🙂


Today I’m giving my talk about teaching Test Driven Development via Coding Dojos. I’m looking forward to some feedback from the community about that. In the meantime I’ve written a bit about the three keynote talks we listened to yesterday.


Lisa Crispin

The day started with a keynote from Lisa Crispin titled “Agile Defect Management”. The overall message was to “lower the bar!” and aim to reduce defect count as far as possible, even to the point where a defect tracking software becomes superfluous. There was a lot of talk about whether such a tool was needed, and in what situations, and she gave a good overview of the state of the art of thinking in this area.


This was a good talk, with audience involvement, by someone who knows what they are talking about. The thing is I have higher expectations from a keynote. I expect to come away inspired and challenged, with some new insight to take back to my daily life. For me, this talk didn’t really deliver that. Lisa concentrated too much on the specific question of whether to use an electronic defect tracking tool or not, and didn’t sufficiently put that question in to the wider context given in the title of the talk “agile defect management”. I was disappointed to find nothing really original or surprising in what Lisa said.


Linda Rising

This was a good talk to hold straight after lunch when everyone is a bit sleepy. Linda spoke very amusingly on the subject “Deception and Estimation: How we Fool Ourselves”. She began by inviting us to see this as “the weird talk” of the conference, and that she was going to go through some of the latest scientific research in the area of cognition and psychology and hoped to relate that to why we have such trouble making good estimates in the context of a software project.


A self-confessed scientific amateur, she stated up front that she wouldn’t provide references to the research she mentioned, although she could give them to you if you emailed her and asked. Linda then proceeded to relate a series of amusing anecdotes designed to illustrate how irrational and over-optimistic people can be. (Markus Gärtner has blogged about what they all were). Towards the end of the talk, Linda began to relate all this to the subject of estimation, and told a story about some conference where she met people who were trying to apply scientific methods, statistics and data mining to the problem of improving estimates in software projects. In my mind, a seemingly a rational response to the problem of irrational, over-optimistic people.


Linda then did what I saw as a complete about-turn in her argument. She quoted one proponent of this “scientific” approach as saying, “well we can’t just make up a number, can we?”. Well no, we can’t, Linda just spent the last half hour convincing us humans are over-optimistic and irrational, and you can’t trust them to make up numbers. Yet that seemed to be exactly what Linda then proposed we do in agile. The points about the way agile overcomes this natural human over-optimism by for example breaking down problems into thin slices, using the wisdom of the crowd and enforcing tight feedback cycles, all kind of got crammed in at the end with little or no explaination.


Quite apart from those specific criticisms of her argument, as someone with a scientific training I didn’t like the way Linda protrayed science and scientists. They initially appeared in Linda’s talk as white-coated oracles who make pronouncements of the truth. “80% of drivers think they are above average”. “You eat more at an all-you-eat buffet”. “Online daters lie about their age and weight”. She then attempted to shatter this illusion of scientific infalliability by quoting Planck, who pointed out that the scientific process doesn’t always proceed in an orderly manner, and sometimes new and better theories only really catch on when the older generation who invented the previous ones atually die off.


Yes, scientists are human too, and you do them a disservice when you only present their results as received truths, without references, and without explaining either the methods they used to reach the conclusions, or what they themselves think of the wider applicability of the results.


This could have been a far more interesting talk about actual recent research studies – what’s coming out of the latest brain imaging techniques, for exaple. Linda could also have spent more time explaining how agile works with human nature to provide better estimates and plans. For all that it made me laugh, all this talk left me with was a bunch of amusing anecdotes and an uneasy feeling that agile was anti-science.


Elisabeth Hendrickson

The last session of the day saw Elisabeth Hendrickson presenting “Lessons Learned from 100+ Simulated Agile Transitions”. With a huge amount of energy and panache, Elisabeth strode around the stage, explaining what happens in an exercise which she usually does with a group of 8-20 people over the course of a whole day. Within the framework of this simulation, she drew out stories and anecdotes to illustrate such diverse subjects as the Satir change model, how physical layout affects communication, the difference between status meetings and communication meetings, and tests as alignment tools.


This talk was definitely the highlight of my day. Elisabeth took some things I kind of knew about, and made me think about them in a different light, from a different angle, and in a new context. I was challenged to go back to my standup meetings and make sure they really are about communication, and that my task board really does make status visible. I have a additional way of explaining ATDD to people – in terms of aligning developers and other stakeholders and getting them moving in the same direction.


Having said all that, I do have a criticism (are you surprised?!). Elisabeth released her slides under the creative commons license, but she does not release the details of her simulation. This would effectively prevent anyone else from running it. I think this is rather like a tool vendor who presents a new testing approach, which by the way, you can’t use without either buying their tool, or spending a large amount of time and money developing your own version. Those kinds of talks don’t tend to get accepted at this kind of conference.


I was disappointed that Elisabeth didn’t release her simulation materials, and I’m not sure why she doesn’t want to. She is obviously a fantastic agile coach and facilitator, and has more invitations to speak than she has time or inclination to accept. It would surely only enhance her reputation to make the agile transition simulation game materials available.


Update: I talked to Elisabeth afterwards about her materials, and she related a story about another independent consultant she knows, who arrived at a client site ready to do a simulation exercise that he had designed, only to discover the participants had done the exact same exercise the week before with a different consultant! The other consultant had just taken the material without permission or acknowledgement. Elisabeth doesn’t want to end up in the same situation, and I can understand that. She did say she could release more information about the simulation though, enough that you could understand how it is designed, and perhaps build your own similar one. I think that would be a reasonable compromise. I just felt slightly cheated after her keynote – I wanted to look at this simulation, poke at it, see how it works and understand why she could use it to generate so many great insights into agile transitions.


I’m at Agile Testing Days this week, and yesterday I attended a tutorial with Lisa Crispin. I’ve never actually met her before, although I have read many of her articles, and the book she wrote together with Janet Gregory, “Agile Testing”. It’s an important book, covering in some detail the role of testers in agile teams, with lots of practical advice and anecdotes from real life.

So I was very interested to meet Lisa and hear what she had to say. She had lots of general advice and war stories about what kinds of tools are useful in an agile setting. From all the new insights and thoughts I gathered from the tutorial, there were two stories that I’d like to share with you here.

The Whole team decides
Lisa’s main message was that automated testing tool choice is a whole team decision, since everyone on an agile team will be affected. She told a story about when she joined a team of Java programmers and persuaded them to try Watir for web testing – a tool that lets you write tests in Ruby. Although the developers agreed to this and were initially keen to learn Ruby, it became clear after a while that they just weren’t comfortable with it, and Lisa found she just didn’t get the help she needed when extending and maintaining the tests. They switched to a tool where the tests were written in Java and things worked much better.

That depressed me a little, I have to say. I’d personally much rather be writing Ruby than Java! Someone else chipped in with another story though. On his team they were also developing a system in Java, with the difference that the developers were very keen to learn Groovy. They had started writing tests using it, and it was working very well. It made writing tests more fun, since they got to learn a language they were interested in. The test automation work was less effort than expected, since they felt much more productive in Groovy than Java. I guess the difference is that the developers were motivated to learn the new language because they had chosen it.

You can do ATDD with GUI testing tools
Lisa told an interesting story about GUI testing. She said she was working on some new features and realized that the only way to test them was was via a GUI testing tool. She was at first very skeptical that they would be able to do Acceptance Test Driven Development with a GUI tool – the GUI hadn’t been written yet, so how could they use this tool to write tests?

In the end she said it turned out really well. They worked from GUI mockups of the new features, and wrote tests with placeholders. When the test scripts needed to interact with GUI elements that didn’t exist yet, she just wrote them in terms of what she’d like there to be there, based on the mockups. When the programmers came to implement the GUI, they could fill in the placeholders and quickly get the new tests running.

This was encouraging since it’s basically the way you work with PyUseCase too. A criticism we get sometimes is that since PyUseCase is a capture-replay tool, you can’t use it to define the tests before the GUI exists – a problem if you’re trying to do Acceptance Test Driven Development. Our experience matches Lisa’s though – you can define the test in general terms, with placeholders, and parts that won’t execute at all at first. Some parts of the test of course can be recorded from the existing GUI. As the GUI is extended for the new feature, gradually you replace the placeholders with executable statements until the whole test passes.

And now for the rest of the conference…
Geoff is giving a talk this morning about PyUseCase and TextTest as part of the main Agile Testing Days conference. We’d really like to get some feedback from experienced testers. It’s a different approach to capture-replay that most people here, like Lisa, will not have seen before. There are lots of other interesting talks and things going on too, and I hope to find time to blog a little more about the conference later in the week.

Why are there so few women programmers? That’s a big question. How about a related one that’s slightly smaller: Why do so few women go to programmer conferences?

Nordic Ruby on Twitter
Nordic Ruby was clearly appreciated by many of its attendees. See tweets like this:

: #nordicruby – best conference ever, looking forward meeting you all next year ! Lots of food for thoughts. Really sad it’s over.

skanev: #nordicruby was just awesome. Thank you guys

walming: Got so much inspiration. Big thanks @elabs for #nordicruby conference.

Very few Women
What I also noticed was, that of around 100 delegates, only 2 were women*.

I have to say, I go to a lot of conferences, which gives me plenty to compare it to. In addition to Nordic Ruby, in the past year I have been to: Scottish Ruby Conference, Scandinavian Developer Conference, JFokus, Smidig, Europython and XP2009. In general, I really enjoy conferences, and none of those I’ve mentioned had a huge proportion of females. Nordic Ruby was not exceptional in that respect. However, although I enjoyed Nordic Ruby, it does not feature in my all-time favourite list. I’ll come to why in a minute. A lot of things about the conference were very good, of course. Some of the talks were excellent, and the venues, food and parties were absolutely top knotch.

The format of of the conference was 30 minute talks (all on one track) interspersed with 30-120 minute breaks. The last session of each day was open and any attendee could give a short “lightning” talk, and many people did so. Every speaker, lightning or otherwise, had a large audience, since there was nothing else on the programme.

Hampton Catlin’s talk – the two kinds of Games
My favourite talk was one by Hampton Catlin, talking about how to make applications attractive to their users. He talked a bit about the different kinds of games that people prefer. Perhaps I can expand this idea to explain why I don’t rate Nordic Ruby as highly as some of the other attendees clearly did.

Hampton explained that computer games lie on a scale from Male-Oriented to Female-Oriented. They are called by those names because your physical gender is a good predictor of which sort you will prefer. (He stressed that you should keep in mind that people are complex, defy easy categorization, and a given individual could have preferences anywhere on the scale.)

The Male-Oriented game will let you score points and rank yourself against opponents. The Female-Oriented game will let you build supportive social networks with collaborators, and become admired by your peers. Hampton said that most computer games are Male-Oriented. He highlighted some exceptions, including Farmville, which is a popular game on Facebook. In fact, he said Facebook itself can be seen as a Female-Oriented game.

Programmer Conferences are like Games
This got me thinking about the Nordic Ruby conference. If Facebook can be seen as a game, can you see a conference that way too? Do attendees play for “score” and “rank”? Is the programmer’s conference game so Male-Oriented that most women just aren’t interested in playing?

The Conference as a Male-Oriented Game
If a programmer conference is a Male-Oriented Game, it will provide you with opportunities to improve your rank and score compared to other attendees. For example, giving a talk will let you show off the cool software project(s) you have created/contributed to. You can improve your rank by criticising other people’s code, and contrasting it with the beauty of your own. You can also score “geek points” by making gratuitous references to obscure programming languages, advanced mathematics and classic sci-fi films.

Your overall conference success is measured by how many people subsequently download your open source projects, and how many followers you gain on Twitter.

The Conference as a Female-Oriented Game
If a programmer conference is a Female-Oriented Game, it will provide you with opportunities to form supportive social networks and gain admiration. Lecture-style talks aren’t so good for that, so the conference will schedule sessions for attendees to have conversations with each other, and collaborate. The conference programme will raise discussion topics that interest attendees, and encourage idea sharing. There may be organized group sessions where you share programming-related problems, pool your ideas and collectively come up with strategies to move forwards. You will gain admiration by being insightful, charming and subtly drawing people’s attention to your open source projects, while also being admiring of others’ projects.

Your overall conference success is measured by how many people subsequently contribute to your open source projects, and how many friendly messages you get on Twitter.

Who Won Nordic Ruby?
Ok, I’m stretching the analogy rather, (!) but I’d say the Nordic Ruby conference game was a little too Male-Oriented for my liking. The focus of the programme was on lecture-style talks, and, put it this way, the speakers made way too many references to Star Wars! There were long breaks, which gave many opportunities for conversation, but there were no formal network-building activities. There was lots of time for chatting, but no mechanism to draw people together around, say, a discussion topic, or a collaborative coding exercise.

The conferences I have enjoyed most have involved relatively few lecture-style talks, and largely comprised of workshops, coding dojos, tutorials, conversation corners and open space discussions. Next week I’m going to XP2010 (which will be my seventh XP conference :-D), and it’s the first ever GothPyCon this Saturday. At both I am organizing coding dojo sessions – collaborative excercises in collective learning and mutual appreciation. Bring on the Female-Oriented conference games!

* There was also two other females there, but neither are programmers.

As I mentioned in my last post I chaired a fishbowl discussion at SDC2010 with title “Should a professional developer always use Test Driven Development?”. I was delighted that the invited panelists Michael Feathers, Geoff Bache and Andrew Dalke all turned up, along with a few dozen other conference participants. As I predicted, we had a lively and interesting debate.

Michael half-jokingly complained that Bob Martin goes around making these controvertial statements all the time, which Michael then gets to go around defending. Michael has a much more conciliatory attitude than Bob, and his take was that every truly professional developer must have at least given TDD a good try and learnt the technique, even if they then decide not to use it.

Geoff’s main point was that we need to widen the definition of TDD to include any process that involves checking in tests at the same time as the code, and not restrict it to just the classic Red-Green-Refactor style with tests in the same language as the code.

Michael was largely receptive to this view, or at least that the soundbite description of “never write any code until you have a failing test” probably was a bit too brief description to encompass the whole of TDD. He did argue though, that the classic TDD style leads to code with good design characteristics of high cohesion, loose coupling, small classes and methods etc, and that he had not found other design techniques which led to better code than TDD. He was not keen to move to a TDD approach without unit tests, and lose these benefits, even if they result in good tests.

Andrew argued that TDD is not sufficient by itself to produce a good suite of tests, and that there are other, better ways to produce these tests. Andrew pointed out that he had examined Fitnesse, a codebase that Bob Martin, (and some others), has created using TDD, and that he found several bugs, including security holes in it. Michael’s counterargument was that with TDD, you get as good tests as you are capable of – if you are not skilled/aware of security issues, then you won’t test for security holes, whatever process you use to create tests.

Another argument of Andrew’s was that he often likes to write tests that he expects to pass, to verify that his code works as expected, for example that he has implemented an algorithm correctly. In the narrow definition of TDD, you are only allowed to write tests you expect to fail. Michael’s take was that this was indeed a too narrow definition of TDD. He said that he frequently writes tests as a way of asking questions of his code, and this often leads to tests that pass straight away.

Some of the “audience” also stepped up to the microphones and joined in. Brian Marick pointed out that forcing yourself to write the test first was a very good way of ensuring you do actually write the test, instead of being lazy and just writing more code. The counter to that was along the lines of that there are other processes for arriving at a good test suite, which took different kinds of discipline. Andrew quoted the sqlite project, which boasts 100% branch coverage of their code by their test suite. Publishing your coverage figures and refusing to let them slip is a way of preventing developer laziness too.

Brian Marick wrote an article about coverage and tests over a decade ago, so he summarized it for us, which was interesting, but I think slightly beside the point. I think he was trying to argue that measuring coverage alone is not enough to guarantee you have a good test suite, but I don’t think that was what Andrew was trying to claim. Simply doing TDD is not a guarantee that you will end up with a good test suite either.

For me, the interesting outcome of the discussion was pointing out that the alternatives to TDD are not only “cowboy coding” or “test later, ie never”, or “bad tests”, but that there are other legitimate ways to come up with a good test suite, and professional developers may choose to use them instead of classic TDD. TDD is a discipline which all professional developers should perhaps have in their repertoire though. I think we agreed it is also a teaching aid for learning to write good tests.

Happily, we definitely all agree that creating a good automated test suite alongside code is important. The precise method a professional developer should always use to produce it was not agreed upon though.

I’m really looking forward to Scandinavian Developer Conference, and in particular the fishbowl discussion I’ll be moderating on the Tuesday at 10:30am. Presenting their views will be Michael Feathers, Andrew Dalke, and Geoff Bache, and the topic under discussion is the same as the title of this post: Should a professional developer always use TDD?

I’ve been enthusiastic about writing automated tests for my code since 2000 when I discovered eXtreme Programming, and started using JUnit. It’s become a habit for me to write tests before code. Occasionly I decide not to, perhaps I am feeling lazy, or think a test would be too difficult to write. I find I usually regret it and end up writing a test afterwards anyway.

One of the things Bob Martin, (a colleague of Michael Feathers), says about TDD in his book “clean code”, is that it is a matter of professionalism. Developers should be like doctors. Would you trust a doctor who didn’t wash her hands because she didn’t belive in it? Well, you shouldn’t trust a developer who doesn’t use TDD because she doesn’t believe in it.

I’ve known Andrew Dalke since 2002, and we’ve worked together on and off since then. Recently he wrote this article criticising TDD. Andrew does not believe TDD is necessary for good development work to happen. Is he unprofessional? Far from it.

My experience of working with Andrew tells me that he is an excellent programmer, who produces high quality code and automated tests. However, the process by which he arrives at this code and tests is not TDD. Tests get written during development, but not in advance of the code they test. The tests do not in any way drive the design, in fact, he uses knowledge of the design of the code to inform what tests he writes.

Andrew says in his article “Once I have a good sketch of how the code is going to be, I often continue by filling in the details. At this point unit tests starts to be useful” he likens what he does to an XP spike solution, except that he does not throw away the spike code and start over when he starts adding tests.

The other person I know who has a complex relationship with TDD is my husband Geoff. Several years ago he was labelled a heretic and almost thrown out when he admitted to a room full of XP enthusiasts that he didn’t write unit tests at all. Geoff does write tests – a lot of tests in fact – but they are not xUnit tests, and they don’t drive the design of his code.

Geoff uses an approach he calls “text-based testing” which involves driving the program from the command line, (or some kind of script), and having his code write a plain text log file of what it is doing. A tool called TextTest picks up the log output and compares it to the saved version from a previous run. Differences are flagged as test failure.

It’s a simple idea, but it is actually very effective and easy to use when you get the hang of it. The main advantage over ordinary TDD is that there is little or no code written per test, meaning less code to maintain overall. The fact that the tests are independent of the design of the code makes refactoring easier, and writing tests for legacy code relatively risk-free.

TDD is a bit different with the text-based approach though. Geoff thinks of what he does as TDD, but actually, only half of the test is nailed down in advance of the code – only the part that tells the program which features to exercise. The part that asserts that it did the right thing is simply recorded after the code is written.

So I expect a fascinating and lively discussion to ensue when I get these guys together! Perhaps you’ll join us?

(Note: I wrote up the discussion in my next post)